Gut Microbial Carbohydrate Metabolism Hinders Weight Loss in Overweight Adults Undergoing Lifestyle Intervention With a Volumetric Diet.
Mayo Clinic proceedings. 2018;93(8):1104-1110
Plain language summary
Recent research suggests that the human gut microbiome has a role to play in the development and maintenance of obesity, by influencing metabolism, fat deposition, brain-hormone signalling and insulin sensitivity. This pilot study of 26 participants, aimed to assess whether the composition and functional aspects of the gut microbiome influence outcomes of a comprehensive weight loss programme in overweight and obese individuals in America. A success criteria of 5% weight loss over a 3 month period was established. Comparisons in the gut microbiome using fecal samples at baseline and at 3 months were made between those successfully achieving the weight loss with those that did not. Achieving the weight loss success criteria was positively associated with the presence of Phascolarctobacterium. In contrast, an increased abundance of Dialister and of genes encoding gut microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes was positively associated with a failure to lose 5% of baseline body weight after 3 months. Interestingly, Phascolarctobacterium and Dialister both belong to the same bacterial family, which suggests that a compositional shift in this family may be responsible for host carbohydrate metabolism and obesity outcomes. This study highlights the potential of influencing the gut microbiome as part of an individualised obesity management programme. However the findings need to be confirmed in a larger, cohort study over a longer duration.
undefined: The rising incidence of obesity requires the reevaluation of our current therapeutic strategies to optimize patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine whether compositional and functional characteristics of the gut microbiota in adults predict responses to a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program in overweight and obese adults. We recruited 26 participants from the Mayo Clinic Obesity Treatment Research Program between August 6, 2013, and September 12, 2013, to participate in a lifestyle intervention program for weight loss. Adults aged 18 to 65 years with a body mass index of 27 to 39.9 kg/m and able to provide informed consent were included in the study. Fecal stool samples were obtained at baseline and after 3 months. Loss of at least 5% of baseline weight after 3 months was defined as success. Clinical characteristics and gut microbial composition and function were compared between those who achieved at least 5% and those who achieved less than 5% weight loss. After 3 months, 9 of 26 participants lost at least 5% of their weight. The mean weight loss was 7.89 kg (95% CI, 6.46-9.32 kg) in the success group and 1.51 kg (95% CI, 0.52-2.49 kg) in the less than 5% weight loss group. An increased abundance of Phascolarctobacterium was associated with success. In contrast, an increased abundance of Dialister and of genes encoding gut microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes was associated with failure to lose 5% body weight. A gut microbiota with increased capability for carbohydrate metabolism appears to be associated with decreased weight loss in overweight and obese patients undergoing a lifestyle intervention program.
Effect of a Protein Supplement on the Gut Microbiota of Endurance Athletes: A Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind Pilot Study.
Plain language summary
Protein supplements are popular among athletes to improve performance and increase muscle mass. However, their effect on other aspects of health is less well known. Dietary changes can affect gut microbiota balance, with beneficial or harmful consequences for the host. This small pilot study was performed on cross-country runners whose diets were complemented with a protein supplement (whey isolate and beef hydrolysate) or maltodextrin (control) for 10 weeks. Microbiota, water content, pH, ammonia, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analysed in faecal samples, and oxidative stress markers were measured in blood plasma and urine. Faecal pH, water content, ammonia, and SCFA concentrations did not change, indicating that protein supplementation did not increase the presence of these metabolites of fermentation. Similarly, it had no impact on plasma or urine malondialdehyde levels. Protein supplementation did however increase the abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum and decrease the presence of health-related taxa including Roseburia, Blautia, and Bifidobacterium longum. The authors concluded that long-term protein supplementation may have a negative impact on gut microbiota. Further research is needed to establish the impact of protein supplements on gut microbiota.
undefined: Nutritional supplements are popular among athletes to improve performance and physical recovery. Protein supplements fulfill this function by improving performance and increasing muscle mass; however, their effect on other organs or systems is less well known. Diet alterations can induce gut microbiota imbalance, with beneficial or deleterious consequences for the host. To test this, we performed a randomized pilot study in cross-country runners whose diets were complemented with a protein supplement (whey isolate and beef hydrolysate) ( = 12) or maltodextrin (control) ( = 12) for 10 weeks. Microbiota, water content, pH, ammonia, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed in fecal samples, whereas malondialdehyde levels (oxidative stress marker) were determined in plasma and urine. Fecal pH, water content, ammonia, and SCFA concentrations did not change, indicating that protein supplementation did not increase the presence of these fermentation-derived metabolites. Similarly, it had no impact on plasma or urine malondialdehyde levels; however, it increased the abundance of the phylum and decreased the presence of health-related taxa including , , and . Thus, long-term protein supplementation may have a negative impact on gut microbiota. Further research is needed to establish the impact of protein supplements on gut microbiota.
The microbiome of professional athletes differs from that of more sedentary subjects in composition and particularly at the functional metabolic level.
Plain language summary
The human gut microbiome is known to actively influence metabolism, immunity and development. It has been shown that increased physical activity and healthy diet is associated with positive changes in faecal microbial diversity and composition compared with sedentary individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic activity of the microbiota between extremely active and sedentary individuals. Metabolic and genetic factors of the gut microbiome were analysed in 40 professional rugby players and 46 sedentary controls. This study found significant differences in faecal microbiota between athletes and sedentary controls at the functional metabolic level, providing deeper insight into the link between sustained physical activity and metabolic health. Based on these results, the authors conclude exercise may be an effective way to manipulate the gut microbiome and suggest further controlled trials be done to better understand the relationship between diet, exercise and the gut microbiome.
OBJECTIVE It is evident that the gut microbiota and factors that influence its composition and activity effect human metabolic, immunological and developmental processes. We previously reported that extreme physical activity with associated dietary adaptations, such as that pursued by professional athletes, is associated with changes in faecal microbial diversity and composition relative to that of individuals with a more sedentary lifestyle. Here we address the impact of these factors on the functionality/metabolic activity of the microbiota which reveals even greater separation between exercise and a more sedentary state. DESIGN Metabolic phenotyping and functional metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiome of professional international rugby union players (n=40) and controls (n=46) was carried out and results were correlated with lifestyle parameters and clinical measurements (eg, dietary habit and serum creatine kinase, respectively). RESULTS Athletes had relative increases in pathways (eg, amino acid and antibiotic biosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism) and faecal metabolites (eg, microbial produced short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate) associated with enhanced muscle turnover (fitness) and overall health when compared with control groups. CONCLUSIONS Differences in faecal microbiota between athletes and sedentary controls show even greater separation at the metagenomic and metabolomic than at compositional levels and provide added insight into the diet-exercise-gut microbiota paradigm.
Feasibility outcomes of a presurgical randomized controlled trial exploring the impact of caloric restriction and increased physical activity versus a wait-list control on tumor characteristics and circulating biomarkers in men electing prostatectomy for prostate cancer.
BMC cancer. 2016;16:61
Plain language summary
There is a strong body of evidence associating obesity and increased risk for more aggressive and progressive cancer. This paper aims to assess the feasibility of a presurgical diet and exercise weight loss intervention in men with newly-diagnosed prostate cancer who elected for prostatectomy. It also aims to explore the intervention’s effects on tumour proliferation rates and other biomarkers. The 3-weeks randomised controlled study included 40 overweight or obese men newly-diagnosed with prostate cancer. Participants in experimental arm were assigned to a healthy energy-restricted diet versus wait-list control arm. All feasibility endpoints were achieved with accrual completed within 2 years, retention of 85%, adherence of 95% and no adverse events. Biologic outcomes were not included in this paper, as biological testing was still ongoing. Authors concluded that this study’s methods and data on feasibility could provide useful framework for the design of future trials. They also highlighted the importance of presurgical trials as a feasible and safe means to assess the impacts of diet and exercise on tumour tissue.
BACKGROUND Obesity is associated with tumor aggressiveness and disease-specific mortality for more than 15 defined malignancies, including prostate cancer. Preclinical studies suggest that weight loss from caloric restriction and increased physical activity may suppress hormonal, energy-sensing, and inflammatory factors that drive neoplastic progression; however, exact mechanisms are yet to be determined, and experiments in humans are limited. METHODS We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 40 overweight or obese, newly-diagnosed prostate cancer patients who elected prostatectomy to explore feasibility of a presurgical weight loss intervention that promoted a weight loss of roughly one kg. week(-1) via caloric restriction and physical activity, as well as to assess effects on tumor biology and circulating biomarkers. Measures of feasibility (accrual, retention, adherence, and safety) were primary endpoints. Exploratory aims were directed at the intervention's effect on tumor proliferation (Ki-67) and other tumor markers (activated caspase-3, insulin and androgen receptors, VEGF, TNFβ, NFκB, and 4E-BP1), circulating biomarkers (PSA, insulin, glucose, VEGF, TNFβ, leptin, SHBG, and testosterone), lymphocytic gene expression of corresponding factors and cellular bioenergetics in neutrophils, and effects on the gut microbiome. Consenting patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either: 1) weight loss via a healthful, guidelines-based diet and exercise regimen; or 2) a wait-list control. While biological testing is currently ongoing, this paper details our methods and feasibility outcomes. RESULTS The accrual target was met after screening 101 cases (enrollment rate: 39.6%). Other outcomes included a retention rate of 85%, excellent adherence (95%), and no serious reported adverse events. No significant differences by age, race, or weight status were noted between enrollees vs. non-enrollees. The most common reasons for non-participation were "too busy" (30%), medical exclusions (21%), and "distance" (16%). CONCLUSIONS Presurgical trials offer a means to study the impact of diet and exercise interventions directly on tumor tissue, and other host factors that are feasible and safe, though modifications are needed to conduct trials within an abbreviated period of time and via distance medicine-based approaches. Pre-surgical trials are critical to elucidate the impact of lifestyle interventions on specific mechanisms that mediate carcinogenesis and which can be used subsequently as therapeutic targets. TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT01886677.