The possible physical performance enhancing (or 'ergogenic) effects of caffeine have been extensively studied since the early 1900s. Recent focus has shifted to its impact on anaerobic physical performance outcomes such as muscular strength, endurance and jumping tasks that require power. Although it has been found to enhance muscle endurance, less is known about its impact on strength and power. This is the first meta-analysis on caffeine and muscle power, and includes 20 studies - ten on muscle strength outcomes and ten on muscle power. The analysis found that caffeine significantly improves muscle strength (SMD = 0.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03, 0.36; p = 0.023) but only for upper and not lower body strength. These results were found for men but more robust studies are needed to examine the impact for women (although the limited research suggests there may be a positive impact). This is in contrast to a previous meta-analysis that found no impact of caffeine on muscle strength (Polito, Souza, Casonatto & Farinatti, 2016). It was also found to significantly improve muscle power (SMD = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.34; p = 0.047). Although the pooled effect of caffeine on performance outcomes was small to medium, even small improvements can make a big difference competitively. Future research is needed to identify the best dosage and form of caffeine to maximise its performance enhancing effects. Additionally, more robust research is needed to reduce bias, and studies including women. It is important to recognise that individual physical performance changes as a result of caffeine are variable, so these findings must be applied on a case-by-case basis. * Polito MD, Souza DB, Casonatto J, Farinatti P. Acute effect of caffeine consumption on isotonic muscular strength and endurance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Sports. 2016;31:119–28.